my boyfriend shared these links with me
Some of these are pretty known via the internet already,but still interesting to read about if you've only seen photos and never heard a story about them.
article from Scientific American
i watch a lot of E.R so i always hear them saying different diseases and things and then i research them
here are some of the ones i have researched lately.its a lot of reading but it is interesting because they aren't exactly the most popular(i had never heard of them before) diseases but they are interesting in the difference of chromosomes between the disease and our regular count of chromosomes(46 chromosomes - 23 pairs)
( trisomy 18 aka: edwards syndromeCollapse )
( trisomy 13 aka: patau syndromeCollapse )
all sources are wikipedia
there is a link for you to learn a lot about diseases
I was really surprised and saddened to hear that Karlheinz Stockhausen had died. So many great artists have died recently: Derek Baily, Ligeti, Luc Ferrari, Bergman, Antonioni. There's something really haunting about revisiting someone's work with the knowledge that they're now a historical figure.
Although I only really like to listen to maybe a third of his music and there's no doubt he was a bit of a megalomaniac, I can't help but be in awe of the sheer musical imagination and utter ambition of this man. He seemed to have an inexhaustible wellspring of original ideas that were completely uninhibited by the scope of anything ever attempted in musical life on this planet. Aside from being one of the absolute innovators of electronic music, Stockhausen spent 30 years writing the worlds longest opera cycle (Licht, at 29 hours), including a string quartet calling for each musician to perform inside a flying helicopter and sung texts written in his own invented language. He pioneered spatialized sound, writing several pieces for multiple orchestras and, at the 1970 Osaka world expo, helped design the world's only spherical concert hall built with 50 groups of loudspeakers surrounding the audience in 360 degrees and in 3 dimensions. Not to mention the countless ideas he contributed to contemporary music theory: moment form, unified time field, variable form, etc. .
Through some freak circumstances (perhaps only the musical and intellectual climate of the 1960's could've produced this phenomenon) the pop world thought this deeply weird music was hip. The Beatles included Stockhausen in their collage for Sgt. Pepper's and tried to incorporate some of his tape manipulation techniques into their studio work (Revolution #9 being a prime example). In the 70's, musicians with as much cultural cachet as Miles Davis, Frank Zappa, and Pink Floyd all declared that they took influence from him. Members of krautrock bands Can and Kraftwerk studied with him, and many years later (quite possibly thanks to reading liner notes and interviews with the above mentioned artists), everyone from Sonic Youth to Bjork, Aphex Twin and Radiohead all consider themselves fans. Amongst 20th century composers, perhaps only John Cage has as much claim to widespread influence.
I think the thing that is appealing about Stockhausen's music as opposed to a lot of the other mid-century European high modernists (Pierre Boulez, for example) is the musical images that occur in his work. Almost every Stockhausen piece has a moment where some timbre or unlikely combination of sounds jumps out of the speakers and grabs you. It was like he would hear imaginary sound possibilities in his head and then try to figure out ways to make them happen in the real world. He seemed to compose from his intuition and pull his ideas from deep within the unconscious, while most avant-garde composers were subjigating every sound to the confines of a strict system and making very dry and boring music. Stockhausen certainly wrote his fair share of serialist music and always found ways of incorporating serialism into his work in some regard, but he was never as dogmatic about it as the others. He also experimented with indeterminacy and aleatoric music. It was often like his pieces themselves were such ridiculously epic concepts that the system was serving the piece rather than the piece serving the system.
In total he wrote over 350 pieces so if by chance you've never listened to him here's my own recommendations for good entry points to his work:
Gesang der Jünglinge ("Song of the Youths") - (1956) - This piece for boy soprano and electronic media set the new music world on fire when it debuted in 1956. It was the first time that the human voice had ever been used in conjunction with electronic sounds and still has a very powerful and haunting effect. It was also one of the first multi-channel electronic pieces and was musically richer and technically superior to any electronic music that had been made before. You can listen to the piece here.
Kontakte - (1960) - for piano, percussion and electronic media. This piece crystallized Stockhausen's theory of the "unified time field" as explained in his essay "The Concept of Unity in Electronic Music". Basically this attempts to break down the wall between micro and macro-cosmic structure, so that the large units of time in the piece (phrase structure, form) are unified with the small units of time (rhythm, pitch, and timbre). All of these properties are morphable, so that a sound that begins as a discretely pitched tone lowers in frequency until it becomes a rhythm with characteristics determined by its timbral qualities, etc.
Hymnen - (1967) - Considered by some to be his masterpiece, in Hymnen, Stockhausen tried to create a "music of all countries and races" by taking recordings of national anthems of the world's countries and transforming them to make a massive electronic piece. It's interesting that although Stockhausen is perhaps the quintessential modernist composer, Hymnen has an undeniable quality of postmodern collage or pastiche. It is a classic of the 60's and can be read on multiple levels: as 60's psychedelia, as part of the growing practice amongst artists of incorporating found objects into their work, as radio drama, as a early example of cultural globalism, etc.
Mantra (1970)- For two ring modulated pianos, this piece combines the pianistic virtuosity of his early Klavierstucke pieces with the sensual beauty of his electronic music. In it, Stockhausen takes two melodies and slowly transforms them both through serial process and electronic modulation that often sounds remarkably similar to Cage's prepared piano.
One of articles I read about his death featured people who knew or met him telling brief stories about what kind of a person Stockhausen was. One of them said something to the effect of that with his death, 20th century music dies as well. I think this is an apt observation; in a way he was kind of the last person carrying on that tradition. Goodbye Karlheinz. Goodbye 20th century!
Are We the Center of the Universe?
The question can be answered on a philosophical level or on a more literal physical level. I will not address the philosophical question. The roots of the physical question come from the ancients. I will concentrate on the Greeks and western civilization as the paradigm for the dangers of such thinking.
Geo-Centric versus Helio-Centric Theories
We know all about the Greeks who developed intricate models of the Solar System (Universe) (e.g., Ptolemy) based on their ideas of the physical laws which governed motion (Aristotle). The Greeks developed Earth-centered models for the Solar System, i.e., geo-centric models.
These notions were not put to rest until the 1600's when a string of workers (Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Brahe, and Newton) finally showed that the Sun was the center of the Solar System, i.e., helio-centric models. The change took many years, however, because of scientific reasons:
* the observational data was poor which meant that it was impossible to choose between different models and the helio-centric models did not work any better than the geo-centric models
* the physics of the day suggested that geo-centric models were more physical than helio-centric models
It was left to Brahe to develop a database which was accurate enough to differentiate between competing models, to Kepler to develop an accurate model for planetary motions, and to Newton to develop a physical theory which explained the laws of Kepler.
Are We at the Center of the Milky Way Galaxy?
As if we hadn't learned our lesson, there was also a debate in the early part of this century concerning the location of the Sun in the Milky Way galaxy. We know that the Milky Way galaxy is a disk-type galaxy known as a spiral galaxy composed of ~ 100 billion stars and that the Sun is roughly 2/3 of the way out in the disk in a spiral arm (see figure). But, how do we know such things (about the shape of our galaxy and our position in the galaxy)?
* Herschel (and later, Kapteyn) performed a simple exercise. They simply counted stars in various directions in the Milky Way galaxy. Their results led to the idea that the Sun was the center of the Milky Way! Hmmmmm.
* Shapley and Trumpler resolved the issue. Essentially the problem is is that dust obscures distant stars. Trumpler came up with this idea and Shapley demonstrated that it was true. How?
Are We at the Center of the Universe?
Well this issue comes up again concerning the expansion of the Universe. However, since we learned our lesson, the notion that we were at the center of the Universe was never seriously considered. But let us consider why this could be an issue and why we rule it out.
The upshot of several thousand years of work is that we are not in a preferred position in the Universe. We are in orbit around an averagish sort of star, which moves around in an averagish spiral galaxy which moves around in a small cluster of galaxies which moves around in an averagish cluster of clusters of galaxies and so on. Apparently, we are just a rather pedestrian member of the vast enterprise known as the Universe.
( PhotoCollapse )
Some other things:
Our Milky Way Galaxy and its companions
ASTRO 322, Galaxies in the Universe, Winter Semester, 2006 <--I'm guessing this is for a class for a class in Alberta,Canada? Either way,it is informative and nicely done!
Happy night, ya'll!
a really excellent recipe for Pumpkin Oatmeal Cookies: